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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

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桁架机械手在机床生产线上的具体应用

发布日期:2018-02-07 作者:booking0756.cn 点击:

桁架机械手作为时尚的一种输送工具,越来越受到青睐。目前,国内外主流的柔性自动线物流系统主要有两种形式:由桁架机械手输送工件组成的全自动生产系统和由机器人搬运系统进行上下料组成自动生产线。在欧美日等发达工业体系,由高速加工中心和桁架机械手组成的敏捷柔性生产系统已经是主流产品,桁架机械手在高空中输送零件,直接把被加工零件从一台机床输送到另一台机床上,桁架机械手兼有工序间运输和自动上下料及物料回转等辅助功能。由于它输送快捷、精准、柔性, 结构相对简捷,便于组合。因而,被机床制造商所器重。

桁架机械手的结构与工作原理

桁架机械手(shou)由(you)主体(ti)、驱(qu)动系(xi)统和(he)(he)控制(zhi)(zhi)系(xi)统三(san)个基本部分(fen)(fen)组(zu)成。按机器人结(jie)构(gou)分(fen)(fen)类(lei)为(wei)(wei)直角(jiao)坐标型,机械手(shou)沿(yan)二维直角(jiao)坐标系(xi)移(yi)动。主体(ti)部分(fen)(fen)通常采用龙门式结(jie)构(gou),由(you)y向(xiang)横(heng)梁与(yu)(yu)导(dao)轨、z向(xiang)滑枕、十字滑座、立柱、过(guo)(guo)渡连接板和(he)(he)基座等部分(fen)(fen)组(zu)成,z向(xiang)的直线(xian)运动皆为(wei)(wei)交流伺服电(dian)动机通过(guo)(guo)蜗轮(lun)减速器驱(qu)动齿(chi)轮(lun)与(yu)(yu)y向(xiang)横(heng)梁、z向(xiang)滑枕上(shang)固定(ding)的齿(chi)条作(zuo)滚(gun)动,驱(qu)动移(yi)动部件(jian)沿(yan)导(dao)轨快(kuai)速运动。移(yi)动部件(jian)为(wei)(wei)质量较轻的十字滑座和(he)(he)z向(xiang)滑枕,滑枕采用由(you)铝合(he)金拉(la)制(zhi)(zhi)的型材。横(heng)梁采用方钢型材,在横(heng)梁上(shang)安装(zhuang)有导(dao)轨和(he)(he)齿(chi)条,通过(guo)(guo)滚(gun)轮(lun)与(yu)(yu)导(dao)轨接触,整个机械手(shou)都悬(xuan)挂在其上(shang)。

3   桁架机器人 重型机器人.jpg

由(you)于桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)速度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)快,加速度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)大,加减速时(shi)间短。当输(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)较重的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件时(shi),惯量大,因此,伺(si)(si)服(fu)(fu)驱(qu)(qu)动(dong)(dong)电机(ji)要(yao)有足(zu)够的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)驱(qu)(qu)动(dong)(dong)和(he)(he)制动(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)能(neng)力,支撑元件也(ye)要(yao)有足(zu)够的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)刚度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)及强度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)。只有这(zhei)样,才能(neng)使伺(si)(si)服(fu)(fu)电动(dong)(dong)机(ji)满足(zu)桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手输(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)高响(xiang)应(ying)、高刚度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)及高精度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)要(yao)求(qiu)。在(zai)选(xuan)择合适伺(si)(si)服(fu)(fu)电动(dong)(dong)机(ji)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)情况(kuang)下,根(gen)据物(wu)料运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)距离(li)和(he)(he)运(yun)(yun)行(xing)节(jie)拍,计算出(chu)伺(si)(si)服(fu)(fu)系统的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)位(wei)移和(he)(he)轨迹,对驱(qu)(qu)动(dong)(dong)器PID参数进(jin)行(xing)动(dong)(dong)态调整。桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手根(gen)据接收到的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)位(wei)移、速度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)指令,经变化、放(fang)大并调整处理后(hou),传递给(ji)运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)单元,通(tong)(tong)过光(guang)纤传感(gan)器对运(yun)(yun)行(xing)状态进(jin)行(xing)实时(shi)检(jian)测(ce),在(zai)高速搬运(yun)(yun)过程中,运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)部件在(zai)极(ji)短的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)时(shi)间内(nei)到达(da)给(ji)定的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)速度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du),并能(neng)在(zai)高速行(xing)程中瞬间准停,通(tong)(tong)过高分辩(bian)率绝(jue)对式(shi)编码器的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)插(cha)补运(yun)(yun)算,控(kong)制机(ji)械(xie)(xie)误差(cha)和(he)(he)测(ce)量误差(cha)对运(yun)(yun)动(dong)(dong)精度(du)(du)(du)(du)(du)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)影响(xiang)。由(you)于被(bei)输(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件不同,质量也(ye)不同,因此,桁(heng)(heng)架机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手有多种规格和(he)(he)系列。在(zai)选(xuan)择时(shi),根(gen)据被(bei)输(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)工(gong)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)质量,加工(gong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)节(jie)拍来选(xuan)取(qu)。但机(ji)械(xie)(xie)手的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)手臂,夹(jia)持方(fang)式(shi),则根(gen)据被(bei)输(shu)送(song)(song)(song)(song)工(gong)件的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)形状、结(jie)构及机(ji)床(chuang)夹(jia)具定夹(jia)方(fang)式(shi)来设计(见(jian)图2)。

机械(xie)手(shou)能够(gou)借(jie)助可(ke)编程序来处理和执行任务。机械(xie)手(shou)主要由手(shou)图 1 臂、回转装置(zhi)、运动部(bu)件(jian)及(ji)驱动部(bu)件(jian)组成。通过对(dui)工(gong)件(jian)外(wai)形(xing)或(huo)工(gong)件(jian)上(shang)定位支(zhi)撑点定位夹持(chi)(chi)工(gong)件(jian)。例如(ru),在(zai)汽车(che)发动机加工(gong)柔(rou)性(xing)自动线物(wu)流输送中,桁架机械(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)夹持(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块会根据缸(gang)体、缸(gang)盖、曲轴等工(gong)件(jian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)外(wai)形(xing)特(te)点,选取不同(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)定位和夹持(chi)(chi)方(fang)式。柔(rou)性(xing)机械(xie)手(shou)上(shang)采用气缸(gang)和电机进(jin)行定位和夹持(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)切换驱动,一套(tao)机械(xie)手(shou)可(ke)完成不同(tong)(tong)品种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian)搬运工(gong)作(zuo)。夹持(chi)(chi)定位模(mo)(mo)块可(ke)根据产品质量和外(wai)形(xing)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)大小(xiao)采用系列化设计,机械(xie)手(shou)上(shang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)夹持(chi)(chi)定位模(mo)(mo)块安装方(fang)式相同(tong)(tong),针(zhen)对(dui)不同(tong)(tong)系列的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian),只需(xu)切换相应的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)夹持(chi)(chi)定位模(mo)(mo)块即可(ke),满足快(kuai)速切换的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)需(xu)要。这样,当加工(gong)不同(tong)(tong)品种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)工(gong)件(jian),只须(xu)变换夹持(chi)(chi)模(mo)(mo)块就可(ke)实现(xian),提高(gao)了桁架机械(xie)手(shou)的(de)(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)性(xing)化。

桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用

1.自动线桁架机械手输送装置的发展及现状

自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)发展(zhan),经(jing)历(li)了刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)和(he)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)两(liang)个(ge)时代。就(jiu)目(mu)(mu)前而言(yan), 在(zai)国(guo)内二者均有之。刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)分(fen)(fen)为(wei)棘(ji)轮棘(ji)爪(zhua)、摆杆、抬起步(bu)(bu)伐、机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)滚道等(deng)形式(shi)。随(sui)着加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)发展(zhan),由其(qi)组(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)逐(zhu)步(bu)(bu)替(ti)代组(zu)合机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)组(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),它以(yi)适应小(xiao)批量多品种(zhong)的(de)(de)(de)优点,得到市(shi)场的(de)(de)(de)广泛认可,并称(cheng)其(qi)为(wei)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)。这(zhei)(zhei)种(zhong)以(yi)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)组(zu)成(cheng)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),就(jiu)其(qi)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)装置或输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)带依然为(wei)刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing), 这(zhei)(zhei)类(lei)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)可谓(wei)是(shi)准柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。当(dang)(dang)今(jin)的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)又(you)有了飞跃,输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)形式(shi)以(yi)刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手)并存,或纯(chun)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song),即(ji)(ji)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)全(quan)部(bu)由桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手组(zu)成(cheng),这(zhei)(zhei)是(shi)真(zhen)正的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),即(ji)(ji)主(zhu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing),输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)也(ye)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)。如主(zhu)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)是(shi)高(gao)速加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)中(zhong)(zhong)心配以(yi)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song),又(you)称(cheng)之为(wei)敏捷柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),是(shi)敏捷制(zhi)造系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)的(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要(yao)组(zu)成(cheng)部(bu)分(fen)(fen)。自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)采用(yong)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)后,输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)步(bu)(bu)距(ju)(ju)可根据(ju)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)配置随(sui)意改(gai)变(bian),自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)上(shang)(shang)的(de)(de)(de)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)与机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)之间的(de)(de)(de)安装位置不(bu)再象刚性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)那样(yang),按照输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)步(bu)(bu)距(ju)(ju)或步(bu)(bu)距(ju)(ju)倍数的(de)(de)(de)要(yao)求进行(xing)(xing)严格的(de)(de)(de)安装,且输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)速度也(ye)可根据(ju)生产(chan)节(jie)拍及输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)距(ju)(ju)离而改(gai)变(bian)。而真(zhen)正体(ti)现柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)的(de)(de)(de)重(zhong)要(yao)一(yi)面是(shi),当(dang)(dang)被加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)零件的(de)(de)(de)产(chan)品改(gai)变(bian)后,输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)部(bu)分(fen)(fen)不(bu)会不(bu)适应而全(quan)部(bu)更换,只要(yao)改(gai)变(bian)输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)程序和(he)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手局(ju)部(bu)结构即(ji)(ji)可。采用(yong)桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)更先(xian)进的(de)(de)(de)一(yi)面是(shi),机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)整体(ti)的(de)(de)(de)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)化(hua)、智能化(hua)的(de)(de)(de)协(xie)调统(tong)(tong)一(yi)。因此,桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手才(cai)在(zai)当(dang)(dang)今(jin)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)上(shang)(shang)越来越多地(di)被采用(yong),使整个(ge)生产(chan)过(guo)程通过(guo)信(xin)息(xi)流(liu)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)进行(xing)(xing)控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)。在(zai)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)和(he)运输(shu)(shu)(shu)过(guo)程中(zhong)(zhong),所需(xu)各(ge)种(zhong)信(xin)息(xi)收集、处(chu)理(li)、反馈(kui),并通过(guo)电子计算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)或其(qi)他控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)装置(液压、气压装置等(deng)),对机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)或运输(shu)(shu)(shu)设备实行(xing)(xing)分(fen)(fen)级控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)。信(xin)息(xi)流(liu)系(xi)(xi)(xi)统(tong)(tong)分(fen)(fen)为(wei)由中(zhong)(zhong)央管理(li)计算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、物流(liu)控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)计算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、单元(yuan)控(kong)(kong)制(zhi)计算(suan)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)、各(ge)数控(kong)(kong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)床(chuang)以(yi)及信(xin)息(xi)传送(song)网络组(zu)成(cheng)。目(mu)(mu)前,汽车制(zhi)造业(ye)中(zhong)(zhong)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)发动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)缸体(ti)、缸盖(gai)及曲轴等(deng)大批量关(guan)键零件的(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)(dong)(dong)(dong)线(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian)(xian),大都采用(yong)了桁(heng)(heng)(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)(ji)械手输(shu)(shu)(shu)送(song)(见(jian)图3)。

2. 国内外的(de)差(cha)距

当(dang)下,我国(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)的(de)(de)(de)(de)发(fa)展很(hen)快,技术水(shui)平(ping)有了(le)(le)很(hen)大(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)提(ti)高,与国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)差距(ju)变得越来越小,甚至有些机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)与国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)相比已经没有什么(me)差距(ju)。特(te)别是国(guo)(guo)(guo)家(jia)重大(da)科技专项的(de)(de)(de)(de)开展,为我国(guo)(guo)(guo)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)上(shang)档次上(shang)水(shui)平(ping)提(ti)高了(le)(le)加(jia)(jia)速度,成绩显(xian)而(er)(er)易(yi)见。加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)这几年发(fa)展的(de)(de)(de)(de)特(te)别快,但柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)技术水(shui)平(ping)和(he)档次,较国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)的(de)(de)(de)(de)差距(ju)还很(hen)明显(xian),国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)采(cai)(cai)用桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)较为普遍,而(er)(er)国(guo)(guo)(guo)内却为数不(bu)多,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内庞大(da)的(de)(de)(de)(de)汽车(che)生(sheng)产(chan)市场(chang)所采(cai)(cai)用的(de)(de)(de)(de)带桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian),大(da)多从国(guo)(guo)(guo)外(wai)进口(kou)。如无锡柴油发(fa)动(dong)机(ji)(ji)厂的(de)(de)(de)(de)缸体缸盖柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)由德(de)国(guo)(guo)(guo)GROB公(gong)司总承(cheng)包,由BZ800加(jia)(jia)工(gong)中(zhong)心、GROB专机(ji)(ji)、清洗(xi)机(ji)(ji)、拧紧机(ji)(ji)、试漏机(ji)(ji)、压装机(ji)(ji)在线(xian)(xian)检具、辅(fu)机(ji)(ji)及珩磨机(ji)(ji)组成。输(shu)送(song)(song)(song)采(cai)(cai)用空(kong)(kong)中(zhong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)和(he)机(ji)(ji)动(dong)滚道自(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)输(shu)送(song)(song)(song)。仅以汽车(che)制(zhi)造(zao)业而(er)(er)言,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内生(sheng)产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian),采(cai)(cai)用桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)屈指(zhi)可数。大(da)连机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)和(he)沈阳(yang)机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)等生(sheng)产(chan)出了(le)(le)该方面(mian)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian),并在生(sheng)产(chan)实际中(zhong)得到了(le)(le)应用。图4是大(da)连机(ji)(ji)床(chuang)(chuang)(chuang)集(ji)团(tuan)生(sheng)产(chan)的(de)(de)(de)(de)DKX017缸体加(jia)(jia)工(gong)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)。加(jia)(jia)工(gong)两种(zhong)缸体,分别为四(si)缸和(he)六缸,其输(shu)送(song)(song)(song)采(cai)(cai)用空(kong)(kong)中(zhong)桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)和(he)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)两端(duan)为机(ji)(ji)动(dong)滚道等形式。桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)两个,一个上(shang)料,一个下料。它(ta)的(de)(de)(de)(de)成功,标志着(zhe)我国(guo)(guo)(guo)国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)由桁(heng)架(jia)(jia)机(ji)(ji)械(xie)(xie)手(shou)(shou)输(shu)送(song)(song)(song)的(de)(de)(de)(de)柔(rou)(rou)性(xing)(xing)加(jia)(jia)工(gong)自(zi)(zi)动(dong)线(xian)(xian)开始向国(guo)(guo)(guo)际水(shui)准迈进。

上(shang)述提及(ji)的(de)只是数量(liang)上(shang)的(de)比较,其实(shi)真正的(de)原因(yin)还是国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)的(de)技术水(shui)平与国(guo)(guo)(guo)外有着一定的(de)差距(ju)。柔性(xing)加工自动线(xian)采用的(de)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou),也(ye)是从国(guo)(guo)(guo)外进(jin)口的(de)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)。那(nei)时,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内还没有专门生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)的(de)厂(chang)家。如(ru)今,国(guo)(guo)(guo)内巨一等一些桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)厂(chang)家的(de)涌出,为国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)柔性(xing)加工自动线(xian)带来了希(xi)望,进(jin)而(er)缩(suo)小了与国(guo)(guo)(guo)外在生(sheng)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)方面的(de)差距(ju),国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)桁(heng)架(jia)机(ji)(ji)械手(shou)(shou)(shou)在柔性(xing)加工自动线(xian)的(de)应用也(ye)越(yue)来越(yue)多,从而(er)打破国(guo)(guo)(guo)产(chan)(chan)市场被外国(guo)(guo)(guo)人的(de)垄断。

桁架机械手作为柔性输送系统,已成为柔性加工自动线中的重要组成部分,过去未采用桁架机械手输送的自动线中的输送部分称之为输送带或输送装置。而今,用了桁架机械手则称之为输送系统或物流系统。过去的输送带由机床生产厂自己生产,而今则由外部专业生产厂来提供;过去的输送带驱动或是用一个油缸,或是减速机通过链条或机动辊子驱动,各个动作单独来完成,所用时间较长且位置精度较差,而今则由伺服系统驱动,完成多个坐标的复合运动,所用时间短, 效率高, 且运动位置精准。这些的进步,都缘于技术水平的提高,解决了桁架机械手的关键技术及难点技术。相信,随着国产桁架机械手技术水平的不断提高,桁架机械手在柔性加工自动线上的应用会越来越多,采用桁架机械手的柔性加工自动线将会成为今后的一大卖点,市场前景非常可观,从而带动国产柔性加工自动线有一个质的飞跃。


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关键词:桁架机器人,桁架机械手,工业多关节机械手

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